Video: Road Map to Net Zero Energy Buildings Ten Big Steps

(Joel Todd Speaks)

Happy to comply with the ADA accessibility guideline. Our guest speaker today is Garrett Rosser. Garrett is a certify energy manager and former energy management consultant. In areas of expertise include programming and reprogramming, building automation and energy management system to increase energy efficiency. Commissioning, retro commissioning of HVAC hardware and software. analysis of interval data and energy provider billing, trend analysis and utilizing knowledge of mechanical systems to achieve energy saving and improving occupant comfort. Our co-presenter is Gary Olp. and I'm going to transition the mike over to Gary to do an introduction.

(Gary Rosser Speaks)

Great. Thank you so much. Thank you everyone for joining us. Dallas Collins has been very pleased to collaborate with Gary Olp of GPIO architects, joining us today to discuss a topic that's moved from the realm of more possibility to that of very real and tangible goal. And that is the goal of reaching that Zero operations for our buildings. And like many of you all we have seen examples of Net Zero projects from across the nation. And we'd begun to ask ourselves very serious questions on what it would take to move our existing building stock to net Zero, as well as work to incorporate net Zero operations as a goal for new construction projects. Discussions we've been having with Gary have led to the identification of some very high-yield strategies that he is employed at projects across the nation and, and things, items that Dallas Colleges is going to work toward in the coming years. We understand it's a process and there's a lot of these things are, and we believe we can find a responsible and effective way to work toward the goal of net Zero. So with that, I just want to introduce formally again Gary Olp of GGO architects. Gary, we appreciate you being here and the time that you've spent with us so far, and the time in this session, I'll go ahead and turn it over to you to get into the meat of the material here.

(Gary Olp Speaks)

Alright Garrett, can you see the screen? The slideshow?

(Garrett Speaks)

I can see you.

(Gary Speaks)

Okay. Can you see the presentation?

(Garrett Speaks)

I cannot.

(Gary Speaks)

Why can't we not see the presentation? So what do we need to do to do that? Last, last time we just opened a presentation.

(Georgeann Speaks)

Yeah, go, go ahead and close the share content button and then open it again and try. When you hit share, it should come up. And as long as you already have your, your presentation up on, there goes here it comes outcomes.

We can still your screen.

(Gary Speaks)

Okay. There. Yeah. Okay. We there are we can see when it opened up, apparently it had a lot of a lot of other things. So I'd like to thank the sponsors that are not only sponsoring the summit, but also to thank them for sponsoring this presentation. Without these sponsors who are also committed to energy efficiency and environmental responsibility, we can to make this happen. So thanks to all of them. So this is, this is our firm with GGO Architects. And we are here today to talk about the 10 steps to net Zero energy. Let me move something out of the way. For new and existing buildings. My information is there as well as Garretts. You can start to look at that and follow up with us after the presentation. But I think you also heard the moderator share with everyone that it will be available online. And I think that information will be provided by the university. Okay. So let's, let's get the show rolling. So I want to start with just a couple of things. Where why slide go? Tell my why slide's gone. There it is.

So the reason this is important, this is an older chart. This chart was this from 2009, carries out 2035. On the chart. You can see graphically sort of what it gives you a good sense of what the proportional representation is of each of these fuel sources. Now, this was done in 2009. You could look up objection 20-30 and they were really only saying that that renewables would account for about 10% coal, 21, natural gas. And you can go right on down the list. Well, what's really true with a new snapshot? This is snapshot and 2019 renewables have actually outperform that. We're now at 17%. New killers. 20 coal has dropped substantially. Natural gas has actually climbed of it. So this is another chart that also takes you. This is 2019 right here. And again, it still shows you that the, the contribution from fossil fuels is still very substantial. And this isn't something, although we're seeing, we're seeing some pretty incredible movement with the renewables and an increased dependency on nuclear. You can still see that it's a small sliver, 17%, and we've got a long way to go. So what that says is least at least for the foreseeable future, probably the rest of my lifetime. We're going to be dependent on fossil fuels. Unless we have some real breakthroughs with a lot of things. And wind is wonderful. But were you generate the wind, you can't get it to where you need it because it's just physics. You lose it through entropy. Batteries that, or change that solar power, same thing, generate power during the day. Battery technology is pretty expensive. There's just not a path currently without some real innovation and transformation and batteries before renewables can play a larger and larger role. So the reason that we're talking about the step ten steps and that 0 is, we have to really acknowledge the fact that fossil fuels are gonna play a significant role in generating electricity well into the future. This is another interesting chart that's just graphic, gives you a graphic representation of CO2 being generated by the industrializations. And you can certainly see how large the United States contribution is. You can see China. Indian is growing at a pretty rapid rate. But it just shows you that the, the most, the most industrialized nations are generating tremendous amount of CO2. So to that end, the purpose of our Net Zero meets your game is to reduce the amount of energy of building needs to consume on a baseline basis. We call it passive survivability. Drive down that load that load that you need to heat and cool a building, light it provide for plug loads to the lowest level possible. Where you begin is, as I said, passive sustainability. And it really starts with orientation. Most designers, most architects, the vast majority of architects, pay no attention to this. And if you really begin to understand how you can use the path of the sun, summer and winter. Natural ventilation. Where does the wind come from? Landscapes and so on. You can dramatically reduce the amount of energy required to heat and cool a building, light it, and plug loads to the tune of almost 95%. Typically commercially, we haven't been able to budget much past forty-seven percent, but that's a big start. So in other words,, say roughly, we've been able to cut the energy demand of the buildings that we designed by almost half. And I think we can, we can continue to improve that with a number of things that you'll see as we go through the presentation. So passive solar design really addresses what direction is the building face. Talks about shading, natural ventilation, daylighting. We can implement good day lighting into our building. So the artificial lighting doesn't have to come on as much. That's tremendous savings, and I'll say it here, but you'll see further numbers. Artificial lighting can consume somewhere around 15% of your total energy demand at a building. So if you can shave a good deal of that off the load, you're making good inroads. When I talk about shading and day lighting. That has to do with understanding how to design proper fix shading devices, green screens, living walls, trees, trees are wonderful to cool, cool exposures of the facade that are, that are exposed to a tremendous amount of of heat gain. Landscapes to shade spaces and films as another option, and then motor operated control cheating devices on the windows. So that but what I'm saying there is you can put, you can put a sensor control shading device on a window. And as the sun hits at that shading device can actually move with the introduction of direct sunlight.

So passive solar really revolves around this. We all know what, we all know what the greenhouse effect and this is enhanced to all of us in our cars and buildings are not much different than an automobile. Automobiles aren't that much different than building. This gives you a representation of how the Sun really affects us here on the planet. What's direct, what's absorbed, what's to defused and what's reflected. This, this show something that most people really don't understand. We have an axis, the planet has an access, we spin on that axis, and then we move around the sun. So that what we get here as we get, we get. Longer day lighting, we get a different Sun angle in the summer than we do in the winter. And here you can see in summer sun and winter sun. And that simple little formula is how we control heat gain in buildings. Again, very simple chart. But what it does show you is that this is a south. You can see that the perimeter introduction direct sunlight is from the south. And the north is typically shaded. In the east and west also have an influence here in the southern part of the United States that western sun as a real killer. It's just an energy killer and interesting, intense heat, a late afternoon. This is really rough. Excuse me, just 1 second. Okay. So this, again, this is very simple. It's surprisingly rudimentary, but it's, it is the most profound chart or graph or, or approach that you can use to design a building. Small glass area in the north, moderate glass area and on the east, major glass area in the west. And this, this indicates moderate glass area. My design philosophies, I tried to eliminate glass on the west to the greatest extent possible. And again, paying attention to the influences that affect your building. Heat gain, wind load, summer breeze, winter brings all those things can affect how you design a building. These are building envelope considerations that many designers don't consider. And you can see that there are these mean heat load and it's it's different indications for different things through the foundation, through a window, a low window through upper windows, clear stories through the roof and through the walls. Proper modelling and we'll talk more about that, but that's really what factors into building envelope considerations. We need to think about designing buildings and the envelope, almost scientifically. We can't just throw walls up in windows up and then just try it. Pump a lot of air conditioning in there and muscle through it. That there was an NFL announcer Summerall. Pat Summerall and it used to drive me crazy, exceeded say. And it was Trane but I support Trane, of course. But I was a Trane commercial and they used to say if 72 degrees all across America. And because of Trane, well that's true. And you can do that. You can muscle through it with a great deal of air conditioning or heating. But if you can reduce those loads with your just fundamental building design, you can then begin to reduce size that mechanical equipment. Again, here's a solar fundamental. So I showed you the charter of the sun when it's high in the sky and the summer low in the sky in the winter. And you can take advantage of that. So here's her summer. You shade that window, wintertime, you let that sun in. And this works in all latitudes across the United States. Here in Texas. What doesn't work very well for us is or across the Sunbelt really are clear or skylights because the sun isn't controlled. It's just driving itself in all the time. You would move up north Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, those states across the north or the part of our country. Pretty much north of the Mason-Dixon line. And skylights can be very beneficial. But this is the graph that we really need to use for primarily designing buildings here in the southwest. And that's shading out summer sun, allowing the winter sun to enter the building. So I put this up and I'm not going to touch on this much. However, this is a great example of passive sustainability. This is Mesa Verde. The native peoples that built this used all natural materials. The facade that you see faced due south, the overhang above shaded those, shaded all those facades in the summertime. So that all of that masonry would cool off, say cool during the day and then cooler at night, kept the inhabitants very, very comfortable. In the wintertime. The sun angle is such that it would, it would provide direct sunlight to all of these facades. And then you get that intense sun energy that would warm all that, all those masonry facades and keep the residents cool at light, at night when the temperature in the desert dropped. So without mechanical systems, Native peoples understood very intimately the path of the sun. That difference, the difference in the seasons, the sun angle capture heat, how to, how to defuse heat or eliminate heat and create very comfortable environment without air conditioning systems. So to pull this off, we really need to start with baseline modelling.

And I'm going to ask Garrett, jumping with me here and talk about this a bit. But what this is about is, up until recently, we've never looked at, as I served those opening slides, we've never looked at a building as a holistic, functional ecosystem. We've never really evaluated the impact of direct, direct heat gain on the south or the shading. The shading that happens on the north, what happens on the east? What happens on the west? We'd never look at that. We've never looked at insulation. We never looked at the energy performance of windows or insulation or vented roofs or those kind of things. So to get a handle on this, we have to start doing baseline modeling and all new buildings. And it applies to old building too. You can look at buildings and and see what the difference is. I was talking with a client yesterday. They they they bought an old building and Texarkana, the building at eight thousand eight thousand dollars of energy bills on a monthly basis. They, they started to look at everything and they found out that the elevators were ancient. The light fixtures were ancient. The building was an insulated the windows were simple, pain unshaded, awful. They made some simple improvements on that building and they've caught the energy use of that building down to $600 a month. So think about that. So for $8 thousand versus $600, that's a monetary description. However, the real issue here is, where does that electricity come from? You go back to that first slide, I showed you that primarily our energy is being derived from burning fossil fuels. If we could take a building and reduce it from $8 thousand and utilities to $6 thousand and utilities. And I won't get admitting engineering of BTUs and all that. But what that says is that's a significant amount of fossil fuel that has to be burned to heat and cool a building. And that's the way we need to look at it. Garrett, you want to come in and talk a little bit about the kind of things that you're looking at there on campus, on the campus?

(Garrett Speaks)

For sure. I think baseline modelling for existing buildings and and for future construction. I think it helps to prevent the tendency or the potential for random acts of efficiency where people are, you know, get hot and a certain idea and say, Okay, yeah, we need that. Well, it ends up individual strategies don't end up being evaluated. Gary, as you mentioned, as part of a system, they tend to be more and just looked at slated fashion. So yeah, so I think for us, Dallas College, we started with some more comprehensive benchmarking. Both lists, some internal portfolio with time management in terms of looking at our buildings on how they perform one versus the other and on a meter by meter and building by building basis. And then we're looking at that in the past and then trying to use that for projections into the future for budget purposes. But certainly just from an energy use standpoint, you have to have a great understanding of what your existing buildings are doing and start to dig into the why are they doing those things and where do you identify discrepancies? And then we have analyzed and cost effectiveness of different measures. We're looking initially to try and implement strategies that maybe have a single-digit ROI. These very high yield projects. We're going to see that on the metres pretty directly. We're going to see that in the billing and we need to be able to monitor and track that. And then as we start looking at some more sophisticated projects or, you know, trying to identify a strategy that we might want to start on a small scale, but then evaluate to roll out on a larger scale. I think you've got the tools like dough to train trace, some more sophisticated modelling. You know, we're, we're entering some baseline data on the building construction and energy usage. And using that to really say, OK, what is going to be the costing impact of the entire lifecycle of a change to a building. And use that to make some really well informed decisions. And down below here we've got some kinda some goals here. This was based on 25 thousand BTU per square foot goal on an all electric car building where things might come out, you know, in your buildings will be different. But for Dallas College, we're looking in the 1.6 to 1.9 watts per square foot and as an average monthly demand. And so your distribution of h back lighting and plug load will be different on different buildings, but that's some kind of generic guidelines that would be, you know, aggressive to try and shoot for to set up a building for on-site renewables.

(Gary Speaks)

And Garrett it wasn't that long ago that we were looking at building consuming 8/10 watts per square foot. Oh, come it come some way. So let's talk about individual building components and aspects of, of a net Zero building. As you saw on one of those slides I showed you at the very beginning. The direct impact of heat gain from the sun. The largest surface, this is in the southwest. It's also true of the north is from direct solar gain from the sun on a roof. And what's really been proven out is that 75% of the direct heat gain can be rewrite radiated through proper group design. So if you start out by getting rid of 75% of that heat gain, then you only have to deal with the last 25% to cool the building. You can get up to as high as 95% if you go beyond installation where it talks about increased insulation here, minimum R42. Code is not quite at our 42 yet. But there's also the thing about insulation. There's a sweet spot. You can over insualte and it isn't gonna do anymore for you. You can overinflate walls. And it really is gonna do much for you. We've sort of found that looking at it today, the way we're working, R42 is about the sweet spot in terms of affordability and offsetting direct heat gain for the roof. And you don't need much more than an R 13 wall. You can go up to R30 R 26. And that with some of the open cell spray foam and closed cell foams. And that's really all that you need to do. The other thing that we've been doing that now has been adopted by code is for 30 years we've been wrapping our envelopes with one inch for incident engine installation outside of the cheating because you still get thermal conductivity where all the framing is. And by adding that extra one inch outboard, wrapping the envelope in that, that also seems to make a tremendous difference in terms of having a high performance envelope. The installation can be under the roof deck or above the roof deck. They're different strategies there and I won't get into the specifics of how you do that. That's more of a design, a design situation. Then, then under reflectivity, you're gonna talk about the solar reflectivity index of the roof itself, which means they ability of the roof through emissivity to reradiate or reflect that heat gain. And when you start to move to a 0.95. solar reflectivity index. And it's telling you that generally the vast majority of that solar, that solar heat gain is being re-radiated. Cool roof design where you ventilate the roof, imagine them an umbrella, if you can put an umbrella over your building. Or as you see a lot of folks do, and in the South carried a barrel out and sun that umbrella, if you will, really cool, can cool down your roof. Trees are a good source of that. But the problem with trees when you get them too close to the building, you can have issues was roofs, the other problem is trees dropped their leaves. And unless you have regular maintenance, it can be problematic. So there's trade-offs to all of this, but a simple thing to do is you raise the roof membrane, the roof, roof itself about an inch off the deck, and then you ventilate that so that air can move under that. You create a thermal siphon. And air moves, lives under that roof and it's pulling it's pulling that heat out and away from the interior, and that's how you can get to 95%. Another strategy, we've used our living roofs and we use living roofs to, to good effect if they're designed well and installed properly, it can virtually eliminate all of that, that heat gain from the sun. Here's an example of a, of a fully integrated roof that it's designed with. Optimized roof insulation. This has our 42 roof. It was a lightweight concrete insulated system and this is an old building, heavy masonry building. We were able to do that. You can see we've introduced day-lighting through skylights and we've integrated solar panels on this route for renewables. And I can talk more about this building later. And in the distance you see the mechanical systems that were also integrated into this building. And this is very high-performance equipment. Garrett will talk about this a little later.

So what's fun about living roofs is a friend of mine. There's still the distinctly and said, you know, birds don't like to land on hot shingles are hot roofs or even, even the roof I just showed you. Because they like to, they like to land and insects like the Hangout On a living mammal, the earth. So imagine what a living roof does is you're building a building, so you're cutting out the living mammals. Are you putting a building there? That's a heat sake that has heat gain and it just warms up and heats up. If you consider the possibility of just cutting out that mantle and lifting it to the roof. Well now what you've done is you've replicated the living mantle of the planet and you put it on top of your building. And it works to mitigate heat gain incredibly. These are bus stops that had been done and so they create a very cool environment below the below the roof. And they have it as a living room. They did that utilizing a living roof. And so it has multiple benefits. This isn't San Francisco beautiful building. And again, it's building is roofed entirely with living roof. Here. I just wanted to hop in and add some Dallas College perspective. During last fiscal year and through the end of this fiscal year, Dallas College will have added 615 thousand square feet, high reflectivity, high emissivity roofs. And bringing all the installation up to code, which currently is R 25. But some of our original roofs and across some of our campuses were just OSB with, with copper on top. And so that probably had an r value of about two or four. So there's some significant opportunities there. And again, we had made a commitment to replacing those roofs with which just really high-performing materials and Garrett that's a good point because that's a significant investment and it's also a significant response. You have a rule of thumb that you can share terms. You've replaced those roofs, what have you seen? And just just energy consumption. As as as as as a product or I guess a portion of the total. Yeah, we don't have good data yet. A lot of those roots, again, our plan, some of them are, are just a few months old. So we don't have great data on what the effect is, but we're very optimistic about the work that's been done. And again, we talked about modelling baseline, baseline and benching, benchmarking. Once we're able, once you're able to benchmark what those improvements have yielded in terms of energy savings. It, it helps to cost justify future and more aggressive projects. Minimum specification, this is window and glazing system. The biggest problem we have is an older buildings, 20 30 40 50 years old. The windows systems are shocked, generally single glazed, the frames are gone. You're getting a lot infiltration, exfiltration, and you're losing a tremendous amount of energy through the windows. So with a new building, you've got the opportunity to do, to do new windows. And the minimum specifications would be, as you see here, in terms of the u value, which is the insulating value, the shading coefficient, high performance, high performance glazing, and then of course, thermally broken frames with an existing building. There are things that when they are scheduled for replacement or failure, you would meet the specification. But let's say you've got a system that's not, they're not totally shot, but they're, they're on their way out. You know, they're kinda like late middle age and and but they're leaking. Well, there are things you can do. You can go and replace the seals on store front windows. You can make sure that that caulking is installed properly with older buildings. And now we do we do a lot more with the sealing of building up, making sure the envelope is is wrapped and sealed so that air can't get in older buildings, not so much. And so when you've got a sealant joined around a window and that sealant joint fails. That's a direct path for hot humid air to find its way into building buildings operate generally. Older buildings than negative pressure. You, you certainly want billing, stop writing positive pressure. But a lot of the older buildings operate negative pressure. So you're drawing in all that hot, humid air and cold air, cold, drier winter season. And that can really mess up your energy performance in the optimization mechanical systems. So a window system that's not quite due to be upgraded or replaced, at least make sure the seals are good. And that's an easy thing to redo and or seal any open, broken down sealant joints. This is a very Talking about shading and I talk about a previously think about shading with windows. There was a study done in the city of Austin by A&M, I think was in the seventies. And they might have been the eighties, but they looked at if they replaced every window in the city of Austin with the most expensive you could window, you could buy triple glazed, gas-filled Louis coated windows. How did it compare to just adding shading on the south and west sides? Strikingly, what they found was that a single plane, single pane window with the proper shading outperformed the best window on the market that you could buy by a factor of four. So the simple thing is start with shading, then put in a window that's cost effective in terms of it's usually just an insulated windows. I said with the specification we had on the previous slide, that's thermally broken. You're going to have the most, probably the most optimized window and glazing system you can provide.

This is a simple chart that we've developed over the years, is tweak a little to get the ideal winter and summer sun angles and how to protect those glazing systems. To, again take advantage of the low winter sun for heating and shield the interior from. The direct solar heat gain in the summertime. So it's that simple. Here's an example. You can see the upper, the upper shading mechanism. There's a lower shading mechanism. This is south. This is the interior. In the middle of July when the sun is very intense and very hot. Another, another aspect of shading is on the east to often designers don't pay attention to the sun and coming in on the east, where the eastern sun is a problem, it isn't so much heat gain with eastern light. It's more a problem of glare coming in and and making an office difficult or classroom difficult to work in because the glare so intense. So this was the solution that we came up with. At that low angle, low morning angle, the sun comes in, hits these baffles and throws at day lining up on the sky or on the ceiling of sorry, in illuminates a ceiling with natural day lighting. So you can see that this is all naturally day, unnaturally daylight space and the lights are not on and you can see that the foot candle level is sufficient for close close work. So that reinforces what I'm saying about proper proper design on the building envelope. You can virtually eliminate the cooling required offset direct solar heat gain, and also the load from lighting that has to be on when the sun shining. Here's another example. This is on campus.

There are two kinds of shading devices shown here. This is a direct shading device that angles about right to shield this glass. It's solid over the door. You want to think about rain protection, that sort of thing. These vertical blades actually do serve a purpose. And they block that low level eastern zone for glare and they blocked that low-level western sun, which is also problematic. So there are, and I don't have a plethora of options here just to show you, this is just to give you a general idea. But we've, we've innovated hundreds of different ways to shade a building properly. This is another example that's on campus and you can see where heavy thermal mass was used to block the block the sun. And again, here are some sun shades. This was probably more decorative than it needs to be because there's really nothing that or shade other than it will keep this wall a bit cooler. This is another shading device. We finished recently, our firm finished it. Say this was direct south sun right here, that's a tennis center. It's the building is just finishing up. We needed to shade that sun. We looked at a number of ways to do it. And the one that our user decided on was this one which was very whimsical, where we took a steel plates, folded them, we did the graphic and we've perforated, perforated the surface of it so that it diffuses the sunlight. So all that comes through the south windows is diffuse light. And we have knocked off again the direct solar heat gain. This is another building on campus and this is at Richalnd. And this building I really enjoyed because the quality that day lighting is amazing. And here this is the facade that was shaded that I showed you. Some of the, some shades on the other slide. These are skylights up here and they're diffused and you can see how the natural light can serve. The lighting is on. And I've been told that this would not be normal. It was done for the photograph. And and typically those are tied to to sun sensors so that they would normally, during regular. Regular operations, these lights would not be on them because they're just not needed. So again, it's another case its supports the fact shade out the direct solar heat gain. If you shade properly, you can introduce that natural day light into a space so that you've reduced your air conditioning load. And you've got wonderful day light to illuminate the space. And I'm going to segue, this is not really a ten steps about energy efficiency, but what's really true is that there's more and more discussion about biophilic influences on the human species. And it is true human, humans respond to daylight so much better than they do in a space that's artificially lit. Here's another space. It has it has windows on both sides. This is south, this is North. The North shading isn't as important. I don't believe they're shading on the south the south facade, but if it did have it, this is another good example.

Again, the lights are on here and I think it's just a function of the controls that were just not operating on that day. And again, you could do things Kelvin, that's the kal wall system. Kal wall brings in natural light and offsets all the heat gain and you get wonderful day like this is the skylight from the interior that I showed you previously. On that roof, there was no daylight in this building. It was an old warehouse. So we simply cut out sections of the room and introduce a daylight with these. These are triple line skylights. But these, these work and Cal will actually works because the way the systems are designed. So again, you can see that proper design of the glazing systems can provide wonderful natural daylight, offset the need for artificial lighting and deal with mitigating or offsetting that direct solar heat gain. These are some other examples I'm going to show you real quickly this this can applied a new buildings and of course, old buildings. If you've got an old building that has a facade that isn't shaded properly. This is all, these are simple cables that run up the building, plant it down here. And this is a green screen. It's a living green screen that has multiple effects. It knocks down the direct sunlight from the sun, so you get diffuse light. But what it also does is plants are amazing just like a living roof, at absorbing that heat gain from the sun and creating a cooler cooling effect on that facade. So the point I'm trying to make is when we design buildings, we need to think holistically as Garrett sits so well, you can't take piecemeal examples. However, if you've got an existing building, certainly you have to, you have to approach it one piece at a time. And these are simply some more living roofs. So I've sort of tough touched on this already. Artificial light sources. We need to utilize LED technology. Eliminate all hall walk, all high wattage lighting. Get rid of old lights. Old incandescent lights are virtually just, just energy vampires to second all energy away. And then targeted prioritization. So this talks there, this speaks to what I said earlier is that identify what the use of the space is. Determine what your foot candle levels are, introduce natural day lighting. Augment with artificial lighting to the extent that it's needed, but not much more. This is an integrated example. This photograph shows you that we have natural daylight coming in. This is on the south, it's shaded. This is a light shelf to throw natural day lighting in. I was sharing with Garrett the other day that all of these lights are photosensors. They have photosensors to sense how much daylight is in the classroom before they come on. Each row is operated individually. This room would have been at far better natural day lighting. Our original design had this light shelf coming into here about right to there. So it illuminates recorders of the rule of law for budget purposes. That was cut back because it's a difficult thing to cost justify. Well then it was. But I think again, that goes back to the modelling. Take a look at, hey, if this eyebrow costs this much more, what are the long-term savings of offsetting the artificial lighting using the daylighting over a 20-year period, 30-year period, 50-year period. If it's a municipal building, you've got an easier, easier road to make that financial case. And you do with a commercial building where they're trying to amortize their costs 5-7 years. Here's another example. This is that fan of center. This is all south-facing glazing. There's no glare and you can see the natural daylight and these lights are on because we're testing him. But this is this is going to be a retail area. And so here again, the lighting is just a supplement when we don't have proper day-lighting. Garrett I'm gonna hand the baton to you to talk about HVAC systems.

(Garrett Speaks)

Here, I'm gonna pause real quickly here I've put my email address in the chat, hopefully everybody can see that if you need to step out participants and, and you go to another session or if you have other obligations. So you can send some questions my way and we'll do our best to get those answered back out to you. Since we did start a little bit late or would you have the go-ahead to keep going and we still have some more content to cover. So we're going to keep all can enroll in. And so if the participants, you've stuck with us thus far, if you wanna stay on with us, we would appreciate it and will continue covering the content and make sure that we've got this recorded for anyone who might view it at a later date. But we'll go ahead and work through it in its entirety, maybe a little bit quicker. But what will you keep rocking and rolling? Alright, H back. Again. We, you know, there's a lot of discussion. This is the, the energy hog on, on most buildings, particularly and our climate zone. And the strategy for us is to upgrade and replace or on new construction, specify the highest efficiency equipment that we can. Certainly there would be some, some trade off theorem. But in generally the idea is you can, you can have a great new building envelope. We can have a great new piece of equipment and still use it poorly. So nameplate efficiency is not the end-all be-all. But if you start with a great piece of equipment, you're set up to be in a good position. Couple strategies here, dx equipment for all 24-seven zones. We have extensive IT project where all IT spaces that were not did not have existing dx indirect expansion air conditioners are receiving those. And we have other before seven Operation areas that will be moving to dx as well. So that's good. Giving those large pieces of equipment turned off and having some very specific HVAC for those areas, upgrade or replace existing controls. VFDs again, these are things that are pretty standard stuff, but it takes awhile to work through. When I think about 4.9 million square feet, that is Dallas College. There are a lot of devices to work through. High-efficiency equipment in terms of chillers and their controls, boilers and trolls also looking at the use of VRF, kinda got a bad rap because it was rolled out in the industry. But I think if installation is correct and we're using braised joint connections on all refrigerant piping. And you follow the manufacturer recommendations. Some of them require that you do not use this site gloss that you do not use filter line dryers. So that is a deviation from kind of the norm on dx installations. And certainly all the techs out there have to be charged positively with nitrogen and increasing fresh air from a. And being intentional about how we do that is one thing, making sure we've got accurate CO2 readings, that sort of thing. And then something that's really come up recently in the last six to eight months filtration. And we think that certainly for our environment, ultraviolet treatment and bipolar ionization or options that though we need to be evaluating and determining how they fit in our overall strategy.

We've got a couple pictures of some devices here, Gary, if you advance it forward. I'm sorry. Two files. Okay. This is brand new cooling tower down into our Mountain View campus. Again, shiny and great, and a definite upgrade over the existing unit. They're going to have improved heat rejection capability. VFDs on all the large motors there in, you know, just sets up the campus to have a good serviceable pieces of equipment that is, that is high efficiency. The next picture is a chilled water storage tank also at Mountain View. And from an energy usage standpoint, you know, chilled water storage allows us to display some of that load to overnight. Gary can you hit us one forward there? Yep. Okay. So chill water storage tank. Again, when we start thinking about renewables, if we can display some of the load to overnight. That reduces the amount of moles that you might need during the day when the building is fully occupied. Additionally, and chilled water systems at night, the heat rejection is more efficient, more effective overnight on water-cooled systems, in air cooled systems as well. Put water coolness as this we have done there at Mountain View. And these are some condensing boilers. We've got a few, few shots of condensing boilers. That's our standard now across the college that any boiler that's replaced is going to condensing. High-efficiency, most of them I percent efficient or higher due to their condensing ability. So really great options for a lot of folks have become the norm for us. They're, they're becoming real workhorses for us. This next picture is a rack of VFDs. Of course we've gotten VFD is on on all campuses, on all different types of equipment. Yeah, there we go. This is at Richland campus a whole rack of VFD is there. Again, we've had several inserts on various campuses for 20 plus years. And that's a real staple of energy efficiency if they're used well, we have seen inappropriate application of a VFD where the control is not really used in any beneficial way. Then is that the motor may start up slowly but then go to 100% capacity and stay at that level. That's not the purpose of the VFD and you're really missing out on some opportunities there. So matching controls with the equipment is the best way to maximize. Here's some brand new condensing boilers at Brookhaven campus. Again, gorgeous installation. I get excited about that when I see it. But at the end of the day, this is going to be equipment that's going to be with us for a long period of time. And it's going to, in the long run, provides some great savings.

Gotta magnetic bearing chiller here offered by York. And very effective machines, extremely little friction on the centrifugal compressor. And they're becoming more and more prominent. And again, this one is at Brookhaven as well. The next picture is that the Richalnd campus. And straight ahead in the middle of the picture is a retrofit device by Trane, it's called the Adaptive frequency drive, is a VFD for that large centrifugal chiller that's behind it. And again, that was a retrofit coupled with some more advanced controls provided by train to make that machine even more efficient. Alright, and the last couple of pictures we have r of the RF system. Again, this particular unit is referred to as a cassette. They have some wall mounted units for the interior usage. And again, we've got filtered device and a small interior fan. And there would be multiple of these spread throughout the building. You can share heat as it is across the system. One portion of the building may be in heating load, the other portion may be in cooling load. And you can balance those heat flows out through these VRF systems.

(Gary Speaks)

And those are the condensing units. You see there. Weatherization. So this is again, when I was talking about weather stripping doors and windows. This is more applicable to older buildings that have been in service for quite some time and sealants age. So over time, regular maintenance program needs to go through and whether strip doors, windows systems, upgrade or replace door sweeps astral storefronts, aging sealers and cocking openings, mechanical penetration, open gaps, pathways, cracks and so on. Because this really can, can affect the overall energy performance. Or you're building a building that's just leaking conditioned air with no control of that. It undermines the operations of the mechanical systems as well as, as just straight up energy loss. To the extent that once you really create these great systems of lighting, fresh air management, lighting controls, new HVAC equipment and so on. Again, it's all for naught if things aren't maintained. So again, I'm going to pass his back to Garrett to talk about the kinds of things that need to be done in terms of software that controls a building systems, and then regular maintenance to keep the system is operating at their optimum levels.

(Garrett Speaks)

For sure. As many of you know, Dallas College's gone through a reorganization from seven individual campuses into a more cohesive college movement all in the same direction. And with that comes the opportunity to unify our strategies on energy management and good things that had been happening across all of our campuses. And really pull those together into a cohesive methodology for making sure we're using resources well. There are some opportunities for sure that are out there. Lighting control strategies and age back controls. A lot of them are software driven, some of its hardware driven on HVAC controls. Big one is consistent set points are not mentioned again here in a moment. I'm optimized sequences of operations. Okay, there's new guidance from ashtray on the guideline 36, which provides some recommendations on high-performance sequence of operation. It Resource, economize or controls. We already talked about the impact, potentially negative impact of bringing in too much outside air. But a lot of folks miss out on the opportunity for economizing and north Texas because they say, oh, it's Texas, it's hot or we don't need, you know, it doesn't make sense to have economizes. Well, particularly for the institutional environment. We tend to have times even in the winter where we have higher heat load. And whether that's equipment or a high number of bodies and an interior space. So it economizes release. And we still take advantage of hundreds of hours a year of free cooling through economizes in CO2 management. Again, that's just making sure that your CO2 sensors are in good shape. And then you have great set points. The, there's some misunderstanding of attribute a guideline and 62 or standard 62. And that is 700 parts per million above the baseline CO2 level is where you set point ought to be. So for us here in Dallas at somewhere in the 1100 to 1200 parts per million. You wanted to run it, it wasn't, you know, I don't think you get too much argument for me. But 1100 to 1200 parts per million on CO2 is a great starting point there. And then scheduled regularly scheduled maintenance ok makes sure the equipment is working well. And kinda last couple items, commissioning checklists for PM's, preventative maintenance work on equipment that's going beyond just changing filters and increasing motors, those things have to happen. But we need to be very intentional about how we exercise equipment. Make sure chill water vowels are functioning properly and make sure dampers are functioning properly. We're ramping fans up and down. Not only do we want to see the equipment and respond, we want to see the correct response from sensors. We want to see when the fan ramps down, we want to see the pressure sensor drawn and that sort of thing. So that's just taking your maintenance and becoming a little bit smarter about about how we do things. And then the last implemented campus wide six core strategies. And these are ideas that have been implemented it at various campuses, but we need to get rolling everywhere in the real quickly. In class. Equipment scheduling, alright, turning things off when they're not needed. Matching are schedules with with the class loads. Second one, consistent space set points. Third, equipment staggered start and that is avoiding startup demand peaks. Equipment capacity control. If you've got two chillers for redundancy on the building and their size such that one machine can load on the building. You don't want to ever see both machines load up and startup together, right? This should be on that proper sequence. So making sure that the correct equipment is selected for the correct load is a great strategy. Two more proper equipment maintenance we just talked about, and building automation operation. And that is relying on these intelligent controls. Too often building operators put overrides, we want to get away from that because we're putting band-aids on the items that we're having to go back and revisit maybe seasonally. So if we let the controls do their work, we can identify where we have breakdowns and failure's. Not only is it going to improve energy efficiency, it's gonna improve occupant comfort. Right?

(Gary Speaks)

One thing that we move to the next slide, but that would've mentioned about CO2 management. It's primarily to control the quality of fresh air. But when you think about it, if you've been in an auditorium or a classroom that's designed for a 165 people. There's five people in there. Nobody's freezing. That's because we're building so design there's a CFM fresher requirement or person that has to be provided to that space. Most engineers will design that, build that fresh air makeup for a 165 people with no controls to drop it down to the fresh air you need when there's only two or three or five people in that room. That's what those CO2 monitors do. They they monitor the amount of CO2 and if fresh air is not needed, then it's not generated. So you're not using energy to create conditioned air for a 163 people that aren't in the room.

(Garrett Continues)

Here's a picture of a Trane centrifugal chiller, again with a factory installed adaptive frequency drive and the controls, sophisticated controls that go along with that machine. So very high-performance, a piece of equipment. I think we've got another shot of it from a different angle. These machines have served us well. In the technology really has come such a long way. And it opens the door for more refined responses in terms of central plant optimization, where we can start looking at variable flow. Certainly on the secondary side, primary flow and even variable condenser water flow. And Trane has a great engineering newsletter on that subject of variable plant flow. Then here's a relic of our existing systems, which we still find in many buildings here across the nation that is pneumatic control. And at the time, you know, state of the art. And these have had a great service life. But they need to go away. There's great opportunity and making sure everything on direct digital control. And being able to really refine control between systems again and goes back to having a more holistic approach on controls rather than each component doing its own thing. DDC direct digital controls facilitates that device level and then the system level, and then even building to building level communications. And just more controls. You gotta live our VSDs.

(Gary Speaks)

Lighting controls, I think Garrtt pretty much covered that already. But what's important or or additional things like occupancy sensors, light harvesting sensors that we spoke about, sun control shading devices, occupancy schedules that match the calendar program use. And then I did touch on the impact of biophilic design and what's becoming, becoming an even greater influence now is diurnal lighting patterns. We're not there yet, but at some point like finishers will mimic the, the colorization or the effect of sunlight at Sunlight moves through the course of the day. It changes as a species we've evolved, waking up in the morning, go and sleep at night. And the quality of that light has really affected how we are mental acuity and so on. Occupant behavior. This is the other thing that, that really can, can make a huge difference in how a building consumes energy. And we want to begin to talk about what is that occupant behavior. And we need to talk about implementation plans between occupants, users, facility managers. Typical example is, is perhaps an office space or, or a dorm room or something where someone's got someone has a space heater under the desk. And they have toasters in the room. They have a whole bunch of other task lighting, just a lot of initial plug loads that can really drive that load up. And some of that can be offset by just, just simple educational programs and saying, look, you don't have your heat on and the window open. So it's as simple as that. And working on plug loads to well-controlled and Garrett you want to add anything to that?

(Garrett Speaks)

Notice, particularly for Dallas College, this is a major opportunity for improvement. And again, it comes back to unifying all the campuses, unifying our processes. There's been so much emphasis put on making sure we've got the right classes to meet the needs of our students. And we'll get the right personnel in those classes to meet those needs. Now on the facility side, we need to make sure that we're interfacing well with those other portions of the organization that are helping make those decisions. So that we're really working together to make the best decision on how to utilize resources. And again, it goes back to education piece and goes back to having folks that understand general rules about mechanical equipment and how they're used and what the impact is. And just making sure we're choosing appropriate spaces for the, for the function. And so much emphasis is put on the operations side. And the operations folks and facilities folks have a great impact on energy usage, but so do the occupants. If we need to work more towards marrying those business functions that traditionally in many organizations tend to be separated.

(Gary Speaks)

Mobility, integration. This is again something we can do with minor to make it or create spaces that accommodate things like bicycles. And if you can, encourage students to use bicycles to get around campus rather than and then using other forms of transportation. That's sort of a campus wide thing, but, but and not really affecting the building use, but overall, campus energy reduction, wellness integration. Again, this is a little outside of the ten steps, but as we just talked about behavior, behavior, how behavior can affect energy consumption and building. If you create some wonderful public spaces that are shaded properly, that have plants, give students and staff members opportunities to connect with outdoor spaces when the weather's nice, they're not going to be sitting in a room with lights on. And that's perhaps too warm or too cool and encourages them to go outside and join the natural environment and take advantage of natural conditions. We're gonna kinda close on renewables here real quickly. And as I, as it says there on the slide, to achieve true net zero performance beyond a highly optimized structural envelope, it's going to require the use of energy generated by green non-fossil fuel sources. So when we began this presentation, I showed you the challenge of only 17% of our energy generation comes from renewables. Well, this kind of shows you the distribution of renewables and what's growing and what's going to continue to grow. And you can see that wind generation is going to grow at a much faster level than solar. But it's just something to consider that once the primary purpose of getting a ten steps to get them at zero, we're trying to get to net zero. And then whatever MD energy demand is, the residual energy demand would need to offset that with renewables.

These are on campus, these are freestanding solar panels. Just shows you the controls and the rear side. And, and I think what's a very strong component of any renewable program is to educate the users and participants to understand what's going on and what these systems do and what they're offsetting. I really like to use real time monitors that can tell you how much, how much energy is actually being generated, how much, how much, or how much fossil fuel energy is being offset. This is an example of that other groups that I showed you. And you can see how we integrated the hot performance PRX systems and solar panels are on the roof. Integrated design, planning and design looks decide spelled wrong, is that it is all about to achieve the kind of things we're talking about to get to net 0. You can't have everyone working in their own, their own little corner. And anon integrated system. The entire team, staff, architects, administration, engineers, contractors, subcontractors, all need to be on the same page working together to innovate solutions to reduce the overall energy demand. What are the ideas that you can do? You know, if you've got, if you need glass on a western exposure, alright, well how do we, what can we do? Well, let's do a green screen. Or if we do a green screen, what do we get employed to do that? What sort of design solutions can we, can, we, can, we, can we generate to make that happen? But then you've got the contract and says, oh my god, that's gonna cost a fortune. Okay, is there a less expensive way to do it? And that's why integrated design is so, so important rather than as we have for so long, a very segregated and divisive process. And one of the last things I want to talk about was just the simple fact that the campus Dallas College's is growing trees on campus to replace those trees that have aged into continue to, to add carbon sequestering methodologies to the campus. I think nearly our last slide. The thing that I wanted to talk about with trees, we've got time for a quick story, very quick. There was a campus in England and it was Oxford College. The, they have very strict preservation standards. One of their larger halls, the major roof beams at dry rotted after almost 1000 years they were they were no longer structurally sound and you would have wood has a lifespan, it just does. So they need to be replaced. And the architects come up with steel that was rejected.

They came up with steel cladded wood that was rejected. The campus and in the UK mandated that would beams of that size go up there. And the architects and everyone involved, a team was like, well, they don't exist, you can't wood doesn't grow that large anymore. We don't have anything like that. We can't get those. We cannot get the size of those beams. Well, the campus Forster was in the back of the room and he was chuckling and everybody's kind of pointed at them and you know what, you think this is funny. And he said, No, I got your beams and everyone would stun. You could hear a pin drop inputs like when he talked about you've got our beans. So he called them out to a force that they had on campus where he showed them the architectural specifications from 1000 years ago. That said that they need, as they put up, they put up those beams and needed to plant a forest. So that six hundred and ten hundred years from now when those beams needed to replace, those trees would be standing on campus to be harvested and replace those beams. And they had gone through the calculation how many trees they would lose to freezing insects, but all the things that can happen to trees. And sure enough there were the proper amount of trees was there they harvest them, harvested them may do beams, put them up and replaced with the forest. So that's an interesting, I think, response. And if we're talking about true sustainability and net 0, that's the kind of holistic thinking we need to, need to employ with our efforts to design buildings. And with that, I'll close. And Garrett, I guess we'll take a few questions or I guess we can I don't know how to get to the questions unless I stop sharing the screen.

(Garrett Speaks)

Sure. Our moderators gonna tee some up he has received in the chat and I could see couple here.

(Gary Speaks)

I want to leave our sponsor page up or, or

(Garrett Continues)

yeah, you can have that up and that's great. And people can view that, will kinda wrap it up and try and have a hard stop and belief here at 12:30. Thanks for everyone for sticking with us. We'll try and get through some questions. If not, again, I've gotten to my email address out in the chat Garrett Rosser@ dcccd actually Gary, if you could go back to that slide that has untapped information probably is the better thing to have up right now. But let's do that. If you need to reach out to Gary your and myself about the content or other other plans or things that we might not have touched on here, but you're interested in. Feel free to reach out to us.

(Joel Speaks)

All right, thanks so much for that great information Garrett and Gary, We do have a few questions to start. The first question we got was from Nicholas and he said, I like the sun illustration. What book is that from? Illustrates?

(Gary Answers)

That is an old book. Yeah, what is it in? There's a book called passive solar energy. And I think it was, it was produced in the late sixties, early seventies. And I think that's where that graphic came from if I recall.

(Joel Speaks)

Do extremely relevant. 50 years ago. Absolutely. Next question from Valerie about plant do plant damage the facade. She said once an insurance company would not ensure her home because of the vines on the house?

(Gary Answers)

Yes, that's true. Vines are problematic because fig leaf ivy any of the ivies, their root systems can actually work their way into the grout joints and or under siting in or behind siding or through a little a little pinhole in a sealant joint, they can cause major problems. So while it looks great, binds growing directly on, on a facade, Yes, that's problematic and you don't wanna do it. The nice thing about doing green screens is it is an independent structure that's separated from the wall, from the facade. And so it grows up independently of the actual facade.

(Joel Speaks)

Perfect, thanks so much for that. Next question, this one is for Gary. First of all, thank you for this great information from Beth, who's my home also uses solar panels and the change are added. The relation to the upper ceiling, the room temperature really improved. Certainly. However, the green grass roots need to be mowed by person routinely and safety is concerned. So any thoughts on those green grass roofs and maintenance associated with green roofs?

(Gary Speaks)

Yes. Roofs that are grass like the San Francisco building you saw that hasn't green grass roof. And there are several other examples. There are grass species that you specify that will only grow to his specific height and stop. We've done roofs with natural grasses and things like that. And you don't mow them, you just once a year you go up and clean them. What normally has to happen as you saw, there's a border around that San Francisco project. So it really is driven by code, but you have to do a handrail or you do a distance from the edge of a pair of parallel. So again, that's a code issue. But you don't have to use grasses that have to be note there are a number of grasses is that will stay very low at fairway grass on a golf course, you know, it'll grow to six inches and stop. So it just depends on your region, how much water, how the roof is designed, and the kind of plant you choose so that you don't have to go up there, you know, you can I mean, how Garrett did a living roof over his petition to his house? And he goes, he's got a little and push mower. He goes up there and he mows it. I tend to go more toward designing root systems that just have to be maintained once or twice a year and don't require that kinda maintenance.

(Joel ASpeaks)

Great options there. The final question is directed to you Garrett it does Dallas College have any plan to add the grass on the existing building to reduce the energy consumption in the summer across all of our campuses?

(Garrett Answers)

Now, at this time we don't have plans to, in a sense, retrofit roofs to green roofs. That may be something that might feature say, of a freestanding parking structure. But it kinda has curated dimension from maintenance standpoint and and just the commitment to make sure that that system maintains working as intended. I think that's something that we're going to have to be pretty cautious about and make sure that we have something that that is going to serve the college well beyond the individual to make that decision. So that's what we're always trying to think about. What are the impacts now? What we do 20 30 50 years from now, because these buildings, a lot of old buildings now and that we're currently occupying and using well, are upwards of 50 years olds. And we expect that they're around for longer than that.

(Gary Speaks)

So to Garrett's point, it's very difficult to put a living roof on an existing building unless it's a high masonry building, something like that. It's much living roofs really require a holistic approach right from the start of that solid. If it's a concept that wants to be introduced, then all the systems that go into supporting it, maintaining it all have to be factored in. We do know from the living roofs that we've done is that there is a great deal of analytical data that's been collected that shows that a typical, typical life groups about 25-years. Sometimes you can get a little longer, but around 20-25 years. And living roofs, if done and designed properly, can double that lifespan because the root of the membrane is underneath not, not exposed to UV degradation or extremes of expansion and contraction. So there's a benefit to that as well. But if they are not designed properly, not constructed properly, they are a pain a pain in the place where you sit.

(Joel Speaks)

So thank you so much. Garrett and Gary, this has been an extremely engaging and informational fashion. Even as moderator, I'm taking home, walk away from that experience. I encourage all of our participants to definitely take down the information that you feel your screen, they're both Garrett and Gary have graciously allowed you to ask any further questions to them in that way. We also want to encourage you to the summit exhibitors between now and 12:50p. So definitely take advantage of this time that we had before the next session start. And again, thank you so much, participant and thank you, Gary and Garrett for your time today. Again, we look forward to learning more.

(Gary Speaks)

Your Welcome, Wonderful.