Video: Landscape Trends: Reducing Water While Growing Food for People and Pollinators

Morning everyone. Can you hear me?

Can you hear me? Great. Thanks, Daniel, for the thumbs up. My name is Alice Rios Shaw. It’s good to see all of you here this morning. I am project lead in the Dallas College Human Resources professional development department. And we welcome you to this breakout session as part of today's Sustainability Summit. So glad you're here. And for those of you who have never participated in a WebEx event before, a few tips to share. The first thing is, we'd like to encourage you to use the Q and A option. If you have some questions that you're going to ask in our Q and A session at the end, these will be collected and answered. At the end of the presentation, captioning is available is needed in the chat function. And you'll use the navigation bar that pops up at the bottom of the screen to access those functions. So again, at the end of the webinar, you'll be asked to fill out an evaluation to please do that when you see it pop-up on your screen, your feedback will greatly help us improve our future events on WebEx and through other means. We also use teams for some of our events, but we'll move on to our guest speaker. Daniel is here with us, Daniel Cunningham. He is a horticulturist with Texas A&M’s, AgraLife’s water university program. Daniel provides professionals as well as the public with the most current research-based information on resource efficiency and water conservation landscape management. He's focused on a holistic approach. And Daniel specializes in native plants, edible landscaping, rainwater harvesting, and the utilization of landscapes as habit for a beneficial wildlife. You can keep up with Daniel, By the way, by following his at TX plant guy at Texas plant guy social media pages, and by catching his latest articles in the Dallas Morning News editable dfw segments on NBC Channel five. Or you can also hear Daniel on 95.3, the range, love the range Daniel tips on how to get the most out of your lawn, landscape or vegetable garden. So without further ado, we bring you Daniel Cunningham.

(Daniel Cunningham speaks)

Thank you very much, Alice, and thank you for everyone joining us this afternoon. So I wonder, I guess it's not afternoon. Yeah. This morning. I wanted to focus on some of the hottest trends that we've seen in landscape design. Or every few years, the American Society of landscape architects does a questionnaire basically asking designers what their clients are looking for in the landscape in the past few years, we've seen an increase. And interests in landscapes that are environmentally sustainable. Landscapes that reduce water cost and landscapes that are lower maintenance. So we see that both with the baby boomer generation as well as millennials check positioning toward tapes and more time enjoyment. Of those surveyed, 83% are interested in native or adapted drought tolerant plants. Low maintenance landscapes, like we said, Drip efficient irrigation which helps with that low maintenance as well as saving water, reduce lawn area, food and vegetable gardens is one [inadudible] really not only been past few years, but it's [inaudible] dope, sick. And finding that hobby due to the pandemic. With food and vegetable production, certainly people are more interested in prairie water harvesting doing organic practices in their landscape and then utilizing compost for the many benefits that it has in the landscape. Now, unfortunately, there are some challenges to growing plants and texas. Whether that is heat, certainly it's something that we've had to deal with summer. So the right amount of sunlight will talk about growing food, certainly sunlight, it's one of the challenges, especially with folks that have mature trees on their properties. Weeds compete with our plants for not only sunlight, but also water and nutrients. But we'll talk about some weeds are things that people call weeds that are acceptable and nutritious. And our landscape and certainly pass can be a problem whether those pests or diseases or weeds themselves or perhaps insects that creates some challenges. And then one of the growing issues and a growing issue and more ways than one, it's typically the most limiting factor to plant growth is water. But because of population growth, it's becoming more and more of a challenge here. And not only in north-central Texas, but in our state as a whole.

If we look at the the US drought monitor over Texas, we can see that in the past few years it's kinda feasts are exceedingly excessive rainfall and then areas that have drought, we're seeing less than 50% of our average rain fall. And really that combination with that rapid growth now in north-central Texas were not only one of the fastest growing areas in the state, but one of the fastest growing areas in the country, which means we have limited water resources to meet that rapid growth. So we have to figure out how to do more with less water. Many times, especially during the growing season in the summer months, we see an excess of 50 to 60% of our water consumption hide up into outdoor water use. So one thing we can do is reduce our turf areas. Typically turf grass is going to have higher demands in terms of water use but also maintenance, fertilizer, different amendments that you would put on that. And so if we can keep about a third of our landscape turf grass, but take over some of that turf grass area with native and adapted perennials. Certainly these can be edible plants as well. And then about a third of our landscape should be made up of pervious hard scape and see pervious. That is areas that are pathways and patios. Maybe borders are edgings that are able to infiltrate water. So when it does rain, borders can soak up that water and that can kinda help hold us tie us over until we get the next rain fall event. Now, a lot of times when we talk about native and adapted plants folks, initially, one of the things that we're talking about a landscape. You would see in Arizona or New Mexico or somewhere in a desert prone area with cacti in Yucca and rocks and the landscape. But we want to show people that hear in North-Central Texas, we can have native and adapted landscapes that incorporate food plants, other edible plants. That not only are drought tolerant and heat tolerant, but because there are better adapted to our area, they're going to typically use less water, less fertilizer, less pesticides. Certainly plants that are native, those are hardy, those are adapted to our sometimes harsh and unpredictable climate, are sometimes challenging soil types. And then there are many adapted plants that they're not native or indigenous to Texas, but they are indigenous to areas that have similar weather patterns and rainfall soil type side that we have here. So what I would encourage folks to do today is to think about how they can use the information provided to give their landscapes a little jolt of life. And we do that with what we call landscapes, CPR. And the C in CPR is conservation. And we want to save resources like water, soil, energy.

We can also improve air quality by using these practices and preserve and enhance the habitat that we do have. And then using our landscapes to help improve the ecological functions that, that land once have. I won't play we can do that is by increasing permeability. And a lot of times in urban areas, we have problems with stormwater and that's because we've created houses and parking lots and driveways and all of these areas where when water drops hit, they kind of go with the path of least resistance. So, you know, because it can't infiltrate into our soil like it once did when this area was short grass or mixed grass prairie. And it causes flooding problems and that stormwater eventually ends up in our lakes where we get our drinking water from it. It picks up all the pollutants that are coming out of our commercial and residential landscape. So if we can disconnect those impermeable or impervious surfaces, break at them, allow water as much as possible to spread out and sink into the ground. Then we're going to be doing better off. We're going to use less water and we're going to protect the water that is heading to our local water bodies. Whether that's a nearby creek or a river or again, man-made lake. And another way we can do that is by creating soil that is biologically active. It's going to hold onto water anytime we add organic matter of mulch on top of our soil that helps more water infiltrate where we do see rain fall events or when we're supplemental irrigating with our irrigation system. But also it works like a sponge holds that moisture into the soil where those roots can take advantage again till we get our next rainfall event. Really it’s all about retention. We want to be greedy with our water, whether we're holding it in the soil, perhaps in cisterns or we're using that and using drip irrigation or soaker hose. And that is going to not only benefit our soil, but also our plant and again, our region and the habitat as a whole. Anytime we can reduce that runoff and grey to capture water and allow it to sink into landscape. Now those are some of the trends that we've seen in the past few years. The trends that we're seeing right now in 2020 definitely include food. You may have seen this. Make local and national news really just an uptick in folks that since we've been in the pandemic depending certainly.

I think when we first got started here in March, there were grocery stores that had limited fresh produce. Folks are really saying, hey, we need to grow some of our food on our property and maybe we can increase our food access that way. Also, we've seen record numbers. Some of our largest seed producers were at a shortage because people were buying seeds to start vegetable gardens themselves. And there were just a limited amount of, of kind of stock seed farms for growing vegetables, which was a challenge. We've also seen this past year, people get more interested in pollinator friendly landscape. Certainly pun intended monarchs are royalty, butterflies in Texas, but people are creating landscapes that give back to bees. Those are our honeybees or European bees or our native pollinators as well, as well as a variety of different pollinators. It could be Beetles like fireflies, or a variety of different hummingbirds and other animals and insects that are kind of accidental pollinators. There's also a trend to warm many meadows or perennial plantings mix with annual plantings and call them kinda micro prairies. These are plantings that have a more wild look but create a habitat using our native plant material. We'll talk more about that. Kinda going forward each year we see trends. Pantone is the color of the year, and this year the color was blue. We've also seen an uptick in plants that have the color grey, whether that's in their foliage or in the blooms himself with talking about some plants that incorporate those. And then the other trend is plants that do double duty. So there are plants that taste great or plants that look great and are water-efficient, and they happen to provide habitat for wildlife. There's also a lot of different functions that those plants they have that's inside the home on our dinner table. And so you don't have to just pick one and back in my landscape, really? Yes. Plants have to tick off a few different criteria before in my home landscape. Now, let's start talking more about growing their own food. We’ve seen. 35% of Americans now are growing their own food. That's the highest number we've seen in decades, 42 million households and the recent data, I really want to see that because I think we're really going to jump past numbers. Couple years we've seen a 63% increase and edible garden for millennials. So it's really neat to see an uptick in the baby boomers as well as the millennials connecting those two generations together, which sometimes fight on social media is a **** millennials and then you hear that talk about, okay, boomer. But there's really a lot in common with that, which is really kind of uplifting. People see growing food as a solution to social and environmental issues. Food waste issues wrote an article this past year at editable DFW magazine. And you can find that just by searching edible Dallas, Fort Worth, by up to 90% of our food scraps end up in landfills. And really that's becoming a growing problem. Food security issues. Currently working on an article for edible DFW that will come out this winter. But it touches on food deserts and the challenges associated with food scarcity here in North-Central Texas, food transport miles. So a lot of times our food travels over 1000 miles to the store. And there's a lot of fossil fuels and natural resources that are tied up there so they can buy local food, we can grow local, we can reduce that. And then there's what wasted water. I'll talk about that more depletion of arable land, especially in urban areas where we don't have as much access to the growing our own food on that property. In fact, agriculture is responsible for 80% of our all of our water consumed. And in Texas, growing our food makes up about two-thirds of our water footprint. And then if any of that food is wasted, and really a big chunk of our water is not actually going to be effective. So one way that we can do that, just by switching out some of our ornamental plants in our landscape where food plants. And so I like to call that the practical integration of food prints with food plants. We're going to use the same ornamental design principles. We're just going to substitute those otherwise unproductive plants for edible plants. And I'll, I'll talk about some specifics. I like to call that stacking functions with multiple use plants. Like I said, you know, plants as a horticulturalists, plants in my neighborhood has to look great. I tried to live in my neighborhood and be Incognito my wife told people what I do and work for the state as a horticulturalist and get questions that I also get judged, can’t escape that. And we're working on that. Plants not great, but also taste delicious selfishly, I want plans that give back to me, but also plants that gift back to pollinators. So if I can plan something that is going to attract a butterfly or a bee. In fact, I have 17 month old daughter and read plant books and books that talk about butterflies and bees.

And this morning I was working on my presentation. And she points to the screen and says bee. And then she points to this screen, and says butterfly. That's so neat that we get to see that out in the landscape. And when I'm doing also recognizes those plants. Certainly we want plants that are going to save water. And not only does that help reduce our water bill in the summer, and also just makes us better stewards of that natural resources. And then there's some other beneficial uses around the home and garden. And I promise I'll dig into that warm edible plants can be used for low hedges, that could be used for borders, kind of plants that are low growing along the walkways. We can see some items in this picture. They can also be background plans that really give kind of a backdrop for some of our flowers and plants that have interest. Foliage. And you have an empty space to fill. Maybe you try and put the right edible plant in that right spot. And you know, certainly edible plants can thrive in spots. Some of them can do the part shade to full shade, but that's a little bit more challenge. We have to kind of think outside the box out when we think about shade tolerant edible plants and an edible plants can be grown for their edible flowers, the flavor of their leaves or perhaps even their scent I did some creeping thyme and some rosemary along the path. You take out the trash. And so normally when you take out the trash, you smell but a trash bag which has all their diapers, in there. And so if you're walking by those herbs and you kinda in parts and some of those lives, floral sense and herbal sense in the air. And that's kinda working multi-function. What's talked about some edible trees that you may want to consider planting. In fact, today is Texas Arbor days and what better way I'm actually going to go after this, go plant some. But what better day to plant trees? Good time to plant those ornamental trees, shade trees as well as these edible fruit trees. Pomegranates do really well full sun they do require well draining soil, but a delicious, highly ornamental plant that is really kind of a symbol of the holidays that we're going into. Persimmons, I liked yesterday I spent the day harvesting some persimmons. I have a dwarf persimmon. My property, these are Japanese persimmons, but if you let these ripen fully, they taste like a cross between a mango kind of honey custard. Kinda little citrusy, just delicious, delicious plants. There's also a native version of those. I have a low quality, low quads are blooming now, which are great at attracting pollinators. They also are going to produce fruit over the winter. But typically it's only every year, two years, three years that they do this because they bloom during the wintertime. And so if we get a really hard freeze, you may not get fruit. But Evergreen foliage this plant that looks very similar to like a magnolia on the foliage. Or some elderberries growing in my backyard. And bees are looming. And then they give us the elderberries, which a lot of people like for the edible value in syrups that folks feel like they help them get past the flu or the cold. But also their humble, you know, big clusters of white sweet smelling flowers are very attractive to a number of pollinators and these are actually native to our area. There are other versions and non-Native versions that actually have really deep kinda purple foliage and pink flowers. These are not going to be as productive in terms of fruits, but still provide habitat for pollinators or a nectar source, Nanking cherries, one of my neighbors has a lot of these on the property, but this is more of a shrubby plan and it's in the prunus families. So like our peaches and plums, This is one of the easiest cherries that we can really grow here and small kinda a lot smaller cherries that are stemless but fantastic for a number of pollinators when they're blooming in the spring and then you get to enjoy these fruits. A Gogi berry. I saw these for sale at a local nursery. I had 20 or so of these. But fantastic high in lycopene as a nitrogen fixer. You can try these and kind of sweeten them a little bit and use these to just snack on or in various recipes. But Gogi berries, that edible shrub whose flowers it's, uh, related to our wolf variants. So lot of pollinators use those similar type flowers. You can also incorporate showy herbaceous edibles, or those are artichokes, beets, kale, beans, swiss chard, peppers, eggplants, lettuces, sunchoke, who's a native editable sunflower, sweet potatoes folks are overseeing right now. Asparagus looks great this time of the year, with the foliage. And then of course, you can argue that in the spring and the fall, arugula in a lot of these plants you can incorporate through the landscape and then you'd be more sustainable because you are utilizing water and fertilizer to kinda keep these going. But if you're taking over some of your landscape and those resources are actually going to be more effective. And if you are going to turf grass or, or, or, or just strictly ornamental flowers. Also a lot of our earth basil, it's time to harvest that before we get a freeze and do some pesto. Whole sage is awesome perennial flower. You can use the leaves and a flop today have a pineapple taste. I've done a lot of different round cover whose flower subtract a number of pollinators. Dill is a close relative of a prairie parsley. So we see a number of butterflies and other pollinators using that oregano Society, Garlic, Rosemary, beautiful blooms on there that attracted a number of pollinators. I mentioned creeping thyme. So cilantro is another one that has beautiful blooms when it's cold outside right now. Then when it goes to seed, you can actually use the seeds as well, which are a spice or number of our alliums. So alliums, our onions and garlic, some of that purple balloons, pink blooms, white blooms, but are just fantastic for pollinators as well as it could put them on a baked potato or use them in a visage, which is kind of a soup people eat this type of year, but any way you'd use chives, you can use those allium. Another great plant, a perennial that is only herb, really traditional that's native to North America has beautiful blooms that they're great for bees and butterflies, a like, kinda just wrapping up for delivering time. Now, fantastic ornamental, edible. Also look for a lot of your herbs that are variegated, which just means that they have tri-color leaves, typically with yellows and whites along with the green. There's Apple, oregano and margarine that are variegated. There bi-color and tri-color sages that you'll use for your Thanksgiving turkey, um, in some variegated times. Now, a lot of these are not ads called party as their kind of solid Greenleaf cousins. So make sure you put these in a protected area and then just know you may have to replant some of these every two or three years, but that's okay. There's also a great variegated plant that I mentioned earlier. This is not a true allium, but like a lot of people don't realize that visit edible as well, that this is the variegated Society, Garlic, one of my favorites. Now let's transition that some weird plants, some kind of outliers that you may not think about as edible as we're spinning our, extending our palettes. Next, give mint miracle grooms as time of year is fantastic and a lot of times it's called Texas tarragon. Actually not native to Texas, native to Mexico, but relative of, which holds as well as our French tarragon. And I think it has a superior flavor. I love to use the leaves and chicken this time of year. It's also great for cocktails. You can use the leaves and the flowers, which have a sweet licorice. I don't like the taste of licorice, you know, black licorice, but it's more of a mild kind of a nice ns type of flavor to it. But again, if you have some monarchs coming through, this is kind of a great Stop sign for them, as well as many of our native bees will utilize that plant. Now, I mentioned, are edible out. You can use equitable farmers and other interesting edible plants that you may have not thought of as kinda traditional vegetables or fruits. And to help your garden look the best it can be around. And you can also be pollinators at the same time. So marigolds, zinnias, pansies, and Diathesis that we should be printing assignment year. Those all are happened to be edible flowers to attract pollinators as well. And in addition to the Mexican tarragon and we talked about in [inaudible]. Now, I do want to give just a quick one. Here. Plants have non-edible or toxic. Look alliance. Always refer to the botanical name and when you're verifying whether a plant is safe to eat, there are some great books out there and this was one of my like first is edible and useful class of Texas by galant. Oh, you can check, you know, reference books for that or you can also look at websites Foraging Texas is a great one. Eat the weed stuff is another great one.

Wild man, Steve Brill. And may fall news for gene in Central Park, which I got to do a couple of years ago, was a lot of fun. Hunger and thirst for life as a blog where younger couple kind of actually cooks more forage, kinda urban foraging and utilizes the recipe. Always wanted avoid eating any plant that's been sprayed with any synthetic chemicals or pesticides. Also look. Plants have heavy traffic or heavy metals, whether that's cars or lead pain or something nearby. Just look at the environment, make sure you're making the right choices. I will say many plants at the grocery store had been sprayed with synthetic insecticides and pesticides as well. So just kinda take that with a grain of salt, but, but always wanna keep that in mind before you put anything in your mouth and just know that it, that many plants do have not edible or toxic look-alike. So you want to kind of set yourself up for success. The thing when you're eating things in the landscape, whether those are traditional vegetables or they are edible landscape plants are plants that do have edible value, that kind of always have thought about as a traditional or emit item. So first I want to identify it. Know exactly what the plan is for you consider eating it just like vegetables in our garden. We know that there's a time of year to harvest. And sometimes when it's acids, beacons not good. We know there's certain parts of the plant that we can eat. So with rhubarb, we know that we can eat the stamp, but not the other part of the plant. Now the part of the plant is toxic and that could be the same with other plants. And talk about some moving forward like Johan Holly As a mildly toxic red berry, but the leaves are used for caffeinated tea to similar to the American Yerba Mate. Also thinking about the environment, you're not going to be harvesting dandelion greens from the dog park, but, you know, in your own side yard or backyard where the doctors and have access to that, maybe something that join up, think about and then method of preparation. Certainly there are plants at the grocery store that are toxic if we eat them raw, like beans is one of those. So we want to actually cook them or use the method of preparation where, you know, it's safest to eat also tastiest for us. Where would you look for some of these plants? I promise we'll dig into here and next couple of slides, your own backyard. So that's conventional. Vegetables, fruits, nuts, edible flowers, trees. You can also eat the leaves. Nearby meadows are abandoned lots, I find wild foods there all the time. Near streams, parks, you know, green belts, trails. I pretty much everywhere. I can't walk 50 feet without finding plants that actually have edible value, I will say though, that you have to ask permission. So one thing that I planned to do tomorrow is I have a neighbor who has a huge black walnut and the black ones are littering the front yard. I'm just gonna go knock on the door a six feet away with my mask on and just say, hey, I know this sounds crazy, but can I harvest your black walnuts? And I’ll say 99% of the time people give me funny looks and then they say, oh sure, no problem. So one that you can do that with is our Mexican plum. In fact, I planted a Mexican plum in my front yard. It's a great ornamental plant, but it also produces edible fruits that are delicious. I actually just made some Mexican plum vinegar yesterday with some, some kinda pits and [inaudible] that are leftover from making jelly. But it's great for pollinators that's native to Texas. It's drought tolerant and you can eat the fruit. So what is not to love about that? And another edible plants and you may be familiar with in your landscape is the red bud, which produces in this spring edible flowers that tastes exactly like a pea because it's in the P family, is the larval host of one of our butterflies, which has an amazing, beautiful Caterpillar. And this is what they look like when they're blaming young buds and flower pods can be used in salads or you can cook them generally spring in the fall. And if you get in the first few days, these pods, they taste exactly like a green bean. Another plant that is very common in our urban areas that is producing fruit right now is the hackberry, one of the first ingredients and pemmican, if you've heard about that kind of trail snack. And to me it tastes like fruit rollups. So if you imagine, your kid what that tastes like. It's also a larval old stuff. The question mark for fly in the morning cloak as well as the Americans. Now, there's also a Texas persimmon I mentioned persimmon earlier and the Japanese for some into the bigger and orange, this one is at very ornamental plant with exfoliated embark in the summer it produces these kind of dark black, which I think are delicious if you've been ripen or you can use them in jellies. And a lot of other mammals utilize those two and you'll butterflies and native bees and flies using them as a nectar source. And it's also the larval host or the gray hair straight. Now, our American persimmon and these that, there are some that I'm harvesting right now. In fact, I'll give you a tip. Not sorry. Actually went to Dallas Community College. Dallas College, across the street is Richland Park and there's probably 40 American percentage there. So you go and look it up and you can go harvest some right now if you want. As well as in the gardens at, at, at Richland and there is a large Japanese cemetery right now. Now you gotta get permission artists from that one probably, but it's 30-foot tall, just delicious plant until they are ripe, so up as overripe bananas. Thank you for overripe. That's when you have to eat anything, either when the crisp, they're very stringent and tannic and make your mouth feel like it's kind of covered in hairs and you only make that mistake once. Pyro says the GS here, which means Fruit of the gods. And I think that that is a great sentiment because the flavor is so good. It's also happens to be the larval host of aluminum MAFFT in your landscape or utilize the ones that are kind of around nearby. And these are some that I harvested about a couple miles from my house and I’m actually in the process of making jelly as well. Some, some preserves. Chickpea oat, is an oat that is indigenous to our area and it's actually named after another plant, all the chickpea has a more edible nut. But you can't actually eat the nuts on the chickpea oat, but you have to process those and leak some of the tannins out. But if you do that, you really get kind of a sweet acorn flour and you can read more about that online or ask me questions on social media. I apologize, we're going so fast here. Cenizo or Texas sage is a plant that's near and dear to my heart, that is very beneficial to a number of our pollinators. But this time of year when people are getting colds, they actually use a tea made from the leaves to help fight congestion, fever, and coughing. And there's more information on that online, but of course, I'm not a doctor. So anything anytime you're using native plants for medical, you shall want to consult your doctor and any medical sources to make sure that wouldn't cause any issues with your diet or any other medical conditions. Another plant that is great for pollinators and delicious for us are the purple passion plant, and this is our native passion vine out a few different cultivars and these are growing in my backyard, but the host species of Mexican [inaudible] in addition to the number of here, wait till the fruit is wrinkled, it has to wrinkle down just a little bit. Or sometimes it will drop off the plant and open it up. And this is a close relative of the passion fruit that gives high C its flavor or different fruit punch strengths. I absolutely love the flavor of guess and I'm going to try and go for it and some that weren't ready this weekend with local chef, Justin Box. So hey Justin, [inaudible] together and he's going to try and do some amazing things with this native fruit. There are some native grasses that do have some edible value. One of those is inlet. Now the chaff makes up an outer coating of the seeds or it's hard to get out of what some folks are actually experimenting with this, to get the fermentable sugars and making them beer. But a great host of the skipper, butterflies and other mammals will use that as well. It's got some benefit. Most people know of echinacea purple cone flower, in addition to being a great nectar source for pollinators that can also be used as an herbal supplement, which a lot of folks have taken advantage of. Another plant that you may be familiar with is a cousin of the szechuan pepper used a lot in Szechuan Chinese cuisine that help kind of numb the hot and spicy dishes. Xanthum xylem is ingenious to a native trees. And you can use the husk of trees that is ground down. And as such, one pepper or shares the same genus as the traditional szechuan pepper, but is a larval host of the Eastern giant solid tail, which they call the bird **** Canada caterpillar, excuse me for being crass. But the insect at the larval state, actually a lot of times people think that it looks like bird France, and then of course grows up to be one of our most beautiful native butterflies or area. There's three or four different zoom out. So we can find here that produce clusters of berries that the outer kinda hairs on those are used to season foods. You may have heard that spice called Sumac sprinkled over hummus and petition Bamaga nutrition, a different Mediterranean dishes. But as kind of fading right now, although I just found some, I guess this past weekend, it's still had some of the hairs on there that you can actually just kinda grind off. And then I used to, to powder I'm, and give that kinda citrusy flavor. Now is prime time to harvest pecans.

Whether those are improved, pecans that are grown to the larger and have a thinner shell or our native pecans that tend to have superior taste. It’s just a harder nut to crack if you will. But, but, you know, larval host of different hair streaked butterflies, of course, are very beneficial to birds and mammals. And the sacked, and are great for pumpkin pie. Pumpkin pies where you could do a pumpkin pecan pie. But great for pecan pie. Black walnuts. I mentioned wanting to go harvest some of these today, but absolutely love this. Not It's a relative of our pecan, looks like a lime when it's growing on the tree and it has this husk on the outer side that kind of fades to black as similar to the kind of a [inaudible]. And it is a harder nut to crack so you have to get inside that shell. But if you do, the meat of the nut is fantastic. And to me it tastes like a cross between a pecan and a pine nut. So definitely worth the trouble to get into there. It is. Use as a landscape tree even though it does have some of the same challenges as pecans, where it loses limbs in a storm and sometimes can look a little straggly in terms of nuts that we can grow here is really a productive plant and this is what they actually look like. No, that's not super appetizing now about how House breaks down, what have you crack into it? This is actually what the meat looks like and is this delicious as, as any nut like fruit that traditionally, and I mentioned member [inaudible] that grow in our landscapes where those are dwarf or tradition or the weeping form that we see in the background here. But these are a relative of the North or the South American rather yo palm that is used in the tea. Yerba Matte. And this is the only planet that I'm aware of in North America that actually has caffeine in the leaves. So you can use this as a coffee or a tea substitute. In fact, it's becoming a trend. It's made national news or a few times in the past few years, another red berries are mildly toxic. I wouldn't worry too much about it. Just definitely wouldn't eat those. But the leaves are edible. You can roast those and an oven, roast them. And lower temperatures and a longer period of time. If you want more of a green tea, or it can roast those a little bit longer. If you want more of a black tea, mix them with cream and sugar, whatever, you know, how do you do? I mentioned they made some national NPR good story on that about five years ago, there was also a Texas company called there's a number of Texas companies actually now there's one out of Houston. We're not a pattern analysis that [inaudible]. You can buy this look for like your specialty grocery stores. And you can make green tea with a native. It has caffeine in it. So it's kinda, win, win they're another planet, it's interesting there's, in addition to being a native plant that grows allow their common landscape. Like I have some kinda right behind me on this back wall and an area that has full sun shade in as a kind of background hedge or background shrubs, that is evergreen. There's not a lot that will thrive and highlight conditions in low light conditions and kinda give you kind of feel through that transition of light. A wax myrtle is one of those. There's a form that rose Well I could treat and requirement crepe myrtle and being a dwarf that is kind of four-foot by four-foot or so. But the leaves are called cajun oregano back. One of the most common shrimp boils like the box that you would use. Boyle's shrimp and crabs actually has wax myrtle as they

ingredient there. So you can use that.

In that respect. It's also can be substituted if you don't have bay leaves. And you can extra leaves in any field soup or stew disk. It is the larval host of butterflies. The fruits are kinda wax is by birds and other small mammals, nectar source for bees and butterflies. And then if you've ever heard of a bay berry kit, this is actually a cousin of the plant that grows in Maine. He's actually a wax from the barriers if you're so inclined, I haven't done it. But certainly it is something that people do and people think about those candles kind of having the smell of Christmas and, and Black-Scholes comes from American Beauty berry, I would just harvesting some of these berries myself fall last yesterday. Back. They arise right on the stem of the plant, magenta, beautiful, beautiful landscape plants, also native here. Xs. You can eat the berries with Italy right there, sweet, mildly sweet, It really depends on the shrub layer you're harvesting it from. But kind of floral notes like if you've ever had rose water or any desserts that have infused roses and then kinda similar to that. So really interesting flavors and jellies and syrups, which I made a couple of years ago now. And this is actually a syrup, which is what I call a jelly, doesn't set up. So I had a problem going from powdered pectin and liquid pectin. And the syrup actually ended up me better than a jelly and more. What's the word I'm looking for? It was more versatile in the play. Sometimes your failures turn into successes. Also beautiful when it blooms in the spring and almost more than any plant and my landscape, I was shocked to see the small, inconspicuous flowers on the American Beauty berry attract such a diversity of pollinators, but they're all very, very small because the flowers are small. Autumn sage, which blooms this type of year. There was a member of them traditionally these were used. Used in Mexican cuisine for seasoning black beans, also nectar source for butterflies and hummingbirds and other bees. The flowers were edible. I would pull the [inaudible] out or the very base of the plant and eat the light part, it's sweet and if you eat the top part. It's more closer, but sometimes it can be a little bitter. But great. Cocktails and salads. Turks cap is another great landscape plan. A native laughed at as beautiful blooms hibiscus. It was a case. And I could crispy cucumber, nectar source for butterflies and hummingbirds. And then it does produce a fruit this time of year called a Turks Apple, which have historically been used to make a jelly. Another plant that was just kind of wrapping up it's bloom time has been the actress and number of reactions actually produce an edible form that you can use like a potato. Now don't go dig it up natively actress, because if you dig up, digging up the plant that wouldn't come back next year. But if you have some of these other kind of spread in your landscape, and this may be something that you want to do more resource and research and see how you can eat that and prepare it. Having looked at season where it produces its pods and that you can use in a flower. And I'm going to kinda wrap up so we have time to get back questions as you want to read more about the honeymoon ski pods and how you can make a diabetic anemic low sugar for you. And sifted that down and there's pictures of that process. But a fantastic flour that you can use for plants. And a lot of people call a weed. Now another plant that people call a weed is the liar leaves sage. What of our native Texas sages and the entirety of that plant flower in the MIT family. Farmers have a little bit of a taste of the MIT there. But it's a great resource for butterflies and bees as well. We've talked about some edible flowers, but in addition to finding an edible flowers, is inner landscape. Right now you can find golden rod, which is the edible flower that has been used in teas and tinctures and as kind of a licorice type flavor, it's also a beautiful ornamental plant that you could decorate that Thanksgiving table with. Or do barriers or a wild blackberries have great floral, Kinda sweet tasting the hint of Blackberry that you could use for teas or to decorate deserts or in salad. Prickly pear produces an edible fruit and an edible flower. Primrose was one of the first plants used at the first Thanksgiving and produces an edible flowers while as an edible tubers that Native Americans took advantage of. Violets or native violets are bloominess time appear also edible and the flowers, the leaves. And then black locus is a really interesting member of the [inaudible] family that blooms in the spring to preserve in this time of year, you can make a syrup from the pods. In fact, it was an ingredient in the first beer that was made in North America, along with Yaro and, or hounds, and then the wax myrtle that we've talked. So the North-American peer utilize those. Interesting. So kind of just wrapping up in conclusion, if you wanted to attract wildlife to your landscape, certainly it puts us back and cut with the land we live on, the people around us and Bennett. So if you want to attract bees or butterflies, hummingbirds, songbirds, sonar, native reptiles, create a habitat for them by providing a food source, which many times she can do through plants, a water source or some type of supplemental water that could be as top down limbs or just the plants themselves. And as you do that, in addition to creating these natural feeding areas. Maybe feeding birds and find more information at Audubon, Texas, creating a layered approach with different plants with the tallest around the edge layers shorter, bolstered your home, creating kind of these shelter areas and all season color or cover that incorporates some 40 plants, different food buried C producing plants. Then really you've created a landscape that wildlife, an addition to our mammals and birds, but our pollinators are going to want to call home. Now. I am running out of time and I want to leave time for questions. So I'll kind of wrap this up. H, which is Texas plant guy. And you can go and find all the information about the new perennial movement incorporating grasses, engineer landscape. All the trends we've talked about, the certifying your landscapes for wildlife habitat. You'll reviewing all these plants that attract pollinators. You can find that on that Facebook page or the Sustainability Summit has recorded this presentation. And so you can, you can go back and you can watch it there and feel free to reach out to me any of the social media platforms at TX plant guy. And I would be more than happy to answer your question. Do we have time for and do we have any questions in the chip?

(Alice Rios Shaw speaks)

We do have five minutes. Daniel before, everybody's going to sign out and head to their next session. Does anybody have any questions not seeing any in Q and A at the moment? At that, remind us, Daniel, if you would, where we can find you online and at times on the ranch.

(Daniel Cunningham speaks)

And so we do once a month, we do a segment on Saturday mornings on on a ranch with [inaudible]. Also. Also. We do a segment on CBS and so right now you can go to CBS Today is Texas Arbor Day. And we did a segment about now also going to be on Texas today, which is the mid-morning segment for NBC or local NBC affiliate KXAS that'll be next Tuesday at one we're shooting that and so you can look for that when we're talking about around well as talk slot smoke and you can find those both on those risks. Respected news channels. You can find all of those segments and all of the articles I've written at Texas or on my social media which you just type in TX plant guy there and those will pop up.

(Alice Rios Shaw speaks)

Very good. Daniel, we appreciate your expertise and your time today and everyone else enjoy the rest of your sessions again, Daniel, thanks for joining us today.

(Daniel Cunningham speaks)

Thank you so much for having me and have a great Texas Arbor Day.